Generating Music by Fine-Tuning Recurrent Neural Networks with Reinforcement Learning
Deep Reinforcement Learning Workshop, NIPS (2016)
Natasha Jaques, Shixiang Gu, Richard E. Turner, Douglas Eck
Supervised learning with next-step prediction is a common way to train a sequence prediction model; however, it suffers from known failure modes and is notoriously difficult to train models to learn certain properties, such as having a coherent global structure. Reinforcement learning can be used to impose arbitrary properties on generated data by choosing appropriate reward functions. In this paper we propose a novel approach for sequence training, where we refine a sequence predictor by optimizing for some imposed reward functions, while maintaining good predictive properties learned from data. We propose efficient ways to solve this by augmenting deep Q-learning with a cross-entropy reward and deriving novel off-policy methods for RNNs from stochastic optimal control (SOC). We explore the usefulness of our approach in the context of music gener- ation. An LSTM is trained on a large corpus of songs to predict the next note in a musical sequence. This Note-RNN is then refined using RL, where the reward function is a combination of rewards based on rules of music theory, as well as the output of another trained Note-RNN. We show that this combination of ML and RL can not only produce more pleasing melodies, but that it can significantly reduce unwanted behaviors and failure modes of the RNN.